desserts · French · patisserie


Soufflés are quite finicky to make and require a great deal of attention to detail while preparing them. One tiny mistake can ruin the whole soufflé and make it collapse.
A soufflé has two main components: the base and whipped egg whites. 
The base- a soufflé can literally be made by using an egg yolk as a base and folding it into whipped egg whites. The only problem is that it would lack flavour and also would rapidly collapse as soon as it is out of the oven. To stabilise the structure of the soufflé, we use flour or cornstarch. 

A soufflé can be either sweet or savoury, and the base determines this. One can make an apple soufflé by cooking down apples to a very thick paste and then adding a bit of flour to create a stiff thick paste. But note that flour reduces the original flavour and hence should be used sparingly. You can make a savoury cheese soufflé using creamy cheeses like Brie, Gorgonzola, Camembert etc or hard cheeses like cheddar, Parmesan etc. A trick to retaining volume when using a hard cheese is to finely grate it to crest the base instead of melting it. When you melt the cheese, oils are released and it interferes with the whipped egg whites and reduces the rise of the soufflé. But when you grate the cheese, the cheese is still spread evenly throughout the soufflé but it doesn’t interfere with the whipped egg whites as much because by the time the cheese melts and releases its fat, the egg whites have already risen and stabilised. 

Whipped egg whites- it is the whipped egg whites that are responsible for the beautiful rise of the soufflé. Soufflé is derived from the French verb souffler which literally means “to blow up” and indeed that is what occurs in the oven when the air trapped in the whipped egg whites turn to steam and makes the product as light and fluffy as a cloud. But to achieve this, care must be taken so as not to introduce any trace of fat to the egg whites. Fat weighs the air bubbles in the whipped egg whites down and causes the soufflé to collapse. The trick in these cases is to encapsulate the fat in a thick starch based sauce so that it doesn’t reach the egg white proteins at all, and hence does not cause any collapse of the soufflé. 

Encapsulation of fats can be achieved through many different ways. The easiest way is to use a very stiff, almost solid, starch thickened sauce to surround the fat. A mixture of cocoa powder and cornflour is very suitable for chocolate, while corn- flour on its own is acceptable for cheeses. There are two methods that can be employed, either add the solid fatty ingredient in a finely grated form to a nearly set sauce, or add the fatty food to the hot sauce and beat really hard while the sauce cools to divide the fat into fine droplets that solidify and are coated by the sauce. 

American · Challenges · creativity · desserts · French · patisserie

International Chef’s day: Plated Cold Dessert Competition

Deconstructed S’mores

We had a Plated Cold Dessert competition today and were given a set of ingredients that we could use to create our own dessert.

My idea was to breakdown the original elements of the popular hot and sloppy s’mores and to turn it into a classy elegant cold dessert that you would serve at a fine-dining restaurant.

I prepared a Caramelised White Chocolate Bavarois and contrasted it with a Bitter Dark Chocolate Cremeux along with a Graham Cracker Crumble and finally finished it off with a Toasted Marshmallow Meringue




These little cookies are much more complex than what meets the eye. The chemistry involved in making a single macaron is quite mind blowing.

A macaron (also known in Australia as ‘macaroon’) is a sweet prepared in many regions of France. Its name is derived from the italian word “maccarone” or “maccherone” which evokes the crushing or beating of the almond paste which constitues its main ingredient.

In Nancy, Lorraine, macarons have been part of the local history since the time of the French Revolution (18th C) when two nuns, the “Sœurs Macarons” (Sisters Marguerite and Marie-Elisabeth), created the famous delicacy seeking asylum in Nancy during the French Revolution, baked and sold the macaron cookies which they made for both nutritional and commercial purposes (baked goods, honey, and other such food products were a source of revenue for most monastic orders, which had very limited ways of making money). These macarons were served as it was, without and added flavours or fillings.

It wasn’t until the 1830s that macarons began to be served two-by-two with the addition of jams, liqueurs, and spices. The macaron as it is known today, composed of two almond meringue discs filled with a layer of buttercream, jam, or ganache filling, was originally called the “Gerbet” or the “Paris macaron.” Pierre Desfontaines of the French pâtisserie Ladurée has sometimes been credited with its creation in the early part of the 20th century, but another baker, Claude Gerbet, also claims to have invented it. French macaron bakeries became trendy in North America in the 2010s.

Last, but not least, the macaron has even a special day of the year – March, the 20th – was introduced in 2005 by Pierre Hermé, another famous French confectionary house. ‘Macaron Day’ is celebrated throughout the world, and participating macaron shops offer free samples to their customers. Save the date and go eat some delicious sweets!

What is the science behind making macarons?

  • Folding the batter to a certain stiffness, getting a precise ratio of egg white to almond flour to sugar, leaving the shells out to harden, getting the “feet” to rise, aging the egg whites beforehand – how can these steps be explained in terms of chemistry
  • First, the easiest: leaving the egg whites out to age. This has the effect of getting rid of a lot of the moisture in the egg whites, which strengthens the protein in them and ultimately makes for a stronger, higher-quality meringue.
    Bitter Chocolate Macarons
  • There’s supposedly a “perfect” sugar-to-almond-to-meringue ratio but I tend to follow whatever my recipe says (it usually ends up being equal parts almond flour and confectioners sugar, and then a meringue with a little more granulated sugar than egg white). And this is for the same reason you use specific quantities of whatever when you bake — enough flour and sugar to form a solid cookie but enough meringue for it to be ribbon-y and airy. Too much almond flour can easily result in burned, stiff cookies. Too much meringue can lead to air pockets. Too much sugar can lead to the sugar burning, while not enough sugar can weaken the meringue and keep the ‘pied’ from forming properly.
  • You don’t want a meringue that’s over-beaten (too much air, which can result in cracking and warped feet) or underbeaten (too flat, causing stiff and/or peaky shells). Moisture in the air or lack thereof can also affect the meringue. If it’s humid, it can take a longer time for the meringue to form, and if it’s dry, the meringue can form very quickly; it’s at a risk of being over-beaten.
  • Folding the batter is, for me, the most delicate process. The point is to “deflate” the meringue somewhat, but to still leave some air in the batter. If you underfold it, the cookies can be stiff and peaked. If you overdo it, the meringue gets too “flat” and the cookies spread into shapeless goo.
  •  The final step before letting the shells dry out is banging the pan on the counter a few times. This serves the purpose of getting out any excess air from the shells. This, plus letting them dry out, is what helps the cookies form feet. The dry shell and lack of excess air, as I understand it, keep the cookie from “rising” in the oven — the batter beneath the sturdy shell has nowhere to go, so the batter is forced to spread outward, which is how you get the foot, or pied.
  •  The baking is also tricky because at that point it’s out of your control. The trick is just troubleshooting, but I find that the important thing is even heat distribution. You can always increase or lower the temperature, and every oven is different.

It’s all about the chemistry of the egg white proteins, the ratio of ingredients working together, the drying-out of the shells and the oven temperature, and the physics of proper air distribution.

It all comes down to science. You need to make sure you start adding the sugar no longer than 25 seconds of beating the egg whites … just until they get a bit foamy. This will immediately increase the viscosity or thickness of the whites, making it more difficult for air bubbles to form.

The thick egg whites are more elastic when all that water-binding sugar is added to them before the proteins get the chance to form a stiff foam, so it’s more like a soupy, gooey mess.

Also, when sugar is added near the beginning of the whipping stage, it gets very selfish. Sugar loves to bind water, so it hogs all of the water in the egg whites, leaving the egg proteins with less of a medium to move around in. This slows them down so that they can’t arrange themselves at the interface between air and water as easily to form large air bubbles. So, instead they end up forming very tiny air bubbles, which results in a more stable foam, that has enough elasticity to hold up during mixing and piping.

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Challenges · creativity · Creativity Challenge · desserts · French · patisserie

French Patisserie competition

I went for a French Patisserie course at APB Cook Studio when I was 16 as I was eager to learn as much as I could about the pastry arts. We learnt to prepare numerous classical French desserts and pastry over a span of a month. At the end of the course, the various batches were gathered together for a contest.


We were told to prepare a dessert, with mousse as the main component. Not having much experience back then, I tried the best I could to complete the challenge.

I prepared a chocolate and coffee mousse between layers of chocolate cake, glazed it with chocolate ganache and added some meringue swirls for decoration. The mango cardamom sauce that I decorated the plate with added a contrasting flavour and added colour to the dish.


One of the judges was the owner of the famous Theobroma Patisserie and Boulangerie, Kainaz Messman and she loved the flavour of the contrasting sauce with the chocolate dessert.


Finally, the results were out and I won second place.